The Antequera Dolmens Site is a cultural heritage in series comprises by three cultural monuments (Dolmen of Menga, Dolmen of Viera and Beehive tomb of El Romeral) and two natural monuments (Peña de los Enamorados and El Torcal) existing in the city of Antequera, in Andalusia, Spain. The cultural institution responsible for its protection is the Archaeological complex Dolmens of Antequera. It was declared a World Heritage Site in 2016.
Outstanding Universal Value
The Dolmen of Menga represents a unique masterpiece of lintel Megalithic architecture (Atlantic tradition), based in orthostates and blankets, unique for its enormous dimensions that lead to the limit constructive the typology of corridor sepulcher, incorporating an unprecedented solution of intermediate pillars; likewise, the Beehive tomb of El Romeral complements the catalog of megalithic constructions with a vaulted solution by rows based in masonry (Mediterranean tradition).
Both the Dolmen of Menga as Beehive tomb of El Romeral present anomalous orientations, as evidenced the Professor Michael Hoskin where he finds that the 99.99% of the dolmens of Mediterranean area have an orientation of celestial type, ie, linked to the sunrise at the dawn of the equinoxes (as occurs in the Dolmen of Viera). However Dolmen of Menga is oriented to the anthropomorphic profile of Peña de los Enamorados to, and specifically to Rock shelter of Matacabras which has been located cave painting. Meanwhile, Beehive tomb of El Romeral is oriented to the mountains of El Torcal where is the Cave del Toro (terrestrial orientation) and at noon sun in the winter solstice (celestial orientation). In addition, in this axis Dolmen of Menga-Peña de los Enamorados is located the Beehive tomb of El Romeral. Thus, the Dolmens of Antequera build a unique megalithic landscape by the unique intrinsic relationship established with the natural elements.
The three megalithic monuments reflect a stage of human history in which the first ceremonial monuments in Western Europe were built, according to the two major building traditions of Megalithic art (lintel and dome by rows).